IN bangladeshIInstitute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research [IEDCR] reported that a 35-year-old woman from Rajshahi died on January 3 of Nipah virus (NiV) infection. She reportedly consumed raw date juice.
According to IEDCR statistics, 231 deaths from NiV have occurred out of 326 positive cases since the country first detected the disease in 2001 and began surveillance, a fatality rate of 71%. So far, cases of NiV infection have already been detected in 32 out of 64 districts across the country, but the rest of the districts are also at risk.
All cases were found to be linked to consumption of raw palm sap contaminated with bat saliva or urine or food prepared from this type of sap, or through contact with infected people.
Reminder in Nipah virus.
of Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus belonging to the genus Hepinavirusof the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus was first recognized in 1998-1999 during an outbreak among pig farmers in Malaysia and Singapore. No subsequent outbreaks have been reported in Malaysia or Singapore since 1999.
The virus was first recognized in India and Bangladesh in 2001. Since then, almost annual outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh. The disease has been periodically identified in East India (2001, 2007). Infection in Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic disease of public health importance in the Southeast Asian Region.
Signs of illness
After an incubation period of 4 to 45 days, the infection causes an illness in humans characterized by fever and headache which may progress to serious forms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or atypical pneumopathy.
About 20% of patients suffer neurological sequelae, such as seizure disorders and personality changes.
Mortality rate (percentage of deaths among cases) high, estimated between 40 and 75%. However, this rate may vary from epidemic to epidemic depending on local capacities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management.
of naked sex Pteropus are the known natural reservoir of viruses.
Several routes of transmission to humans are possible.
In the early outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore, most human infections resulted from direct contact with sick pigs or their contaminated tissues. Transmission is thought to have occurred through contact with pig secretions or the tissues of a sick animal.
In subsequent outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, the most likely source of infection was consumption of fruit or fruit products (eg, raw palm sap) contaminated with urine or saliva from infected bats.
Human-to-human transmission through unprotected close contact with an infected patient in their environment or in a hospital is also possible. Many cases identified in the current outbreak were infected through unprotected direct contact with other infected persons.
There is no treatment neither vaccine available, whether to humans or animals.
Nipah virus infection can be prevented by the following measures:
- avoiding exposure to bats and diseased pigs in endemic areas;
- avoiding consumption of fruit partially eaten by infected bats or drinking palm sap or sap;
- the risk of international transmission through fruit contaminated with the urine or saliva of infected bats can be avoided by careful washing and peeling before consumption;
- fruit showing signs of bat bites should be discarded.
In health care facilities, staff should routinely implement standard infection prevention and control measures when caring for patients to prevent nosocomial infections (healthcare-associated infections that occur in the hospital).
Health care workers caring for a patient suspected of having Nipah virus fever should immediately contact local and national experts for advice and to arrange laboratory testing.