Outbreak of paratyphoid fever in Argentina

In Argentina, the Ministry of Health has issued an alert for a fever epidemic paratyphoid in the province of Salt after an inter-provincial sporting event held at a city club on November 12 and 13, 2022.

  • 80% of the reported cases reside in the province of Salta, mainly in the department of equityfollowed by the departments of Cerrillos (5.7%), Rosario de Lerma (5.5%) and Chicoana (1.8%).
  • 61% of the total number of reported cases correspond to children under 15 years of agethe delegations of Salta, Catamarca, Chaco, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, and Tucumán that participated in the event.

The event affected players, coaches and family members.

strain Salmonella Paratyphi B was identified in the available isolates.

Nationally, the surveillance system reported 1,427 reports of paratyphoid fever of which 94% of notifications correspond to the province of Salta or have been discovered in people in other provinces with a story of travel to Salta.

Reminder in typhoid fever :

of typhoid fever to Salmonella typhi, such as paratyphoid fever Salmonella para-typhi A, B and C, are systemic bacterial infections of digestive origin. The source of contamination lies in the feces of sick people or healthy carriers, but the feces of Salmonella. Transmission is said to be fecal-oral, either directly by ingesting the bacteria from contaminated feces, or more often indirectly by ingesting water or food eaten raw (seafood, vegetables, etc.) contaminated with feces. of infected people (sewage, spread, etc.).

Symptoms usually appear 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and can be mild or severe. They include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhoea, pink spots on the chest and damage to the spleen and liver. Asymptomatic carriage of the bacteria may follow the disease.

Management of typhoid or paratyphoid fever may require hospitalization. Treatment is with antibiotics. Mortality, which can reach 10% without antibiotic treatment, is less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Vaccination against typhoid fever (Typhim Vi, Tyavax) is recommended in countries where hygiene is unsafe for travelers whose stay is prolonged or in poor conditions. Since this vaccine provides only 50 to 80% protection, it does not replace hygiene measures, which include hand washing.

Those who mix closely with the local population in outbreak areas are recommended to take the following steps:

  • wash your hands often with soap and water, especially before eating;
  • avoid using collective towels;
  • eat only cooked foods;
  • avoiding the consumption of fish, shellfish or seafood, except well cooked or fried;
  • peel carefully, otherwise cook or disinfect fruits and vegetables;
  • drink only bottled mineral water or treated water (chlorinated, troclozen sodium or boiled);
  • do not consume ice cubes, ice cream or sorbet on public sale.

Source: ProMED.

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